• Factors
    Main factors identified by household laid out on the ground for consideration
  • Ranking Factors
    Women ranking factors in Kilifi, Kenya
  • Enumerator Training
    Training conducted in Hawassa, Ethiopia
  • Typical Latrine
    Latrine with handwashing faciltiies in Kilifi, Kenya
  • Typical Household
    Oromia, Ethiopia
  • Enumerator Trainees
    Female enumerators in Kilifi, Kenya
  • Ranking Factors
    Man ranking factors
  • Discussing factors
    Piloting process in Tororo, Uganda
  • Piloting process
    Tororo, Uganda

Plan International - ODF Sustainability Study

In 2012 Plan contracted FH Designs to conduct a study into the main factors affecting the sustainability of ODF status of households in villages triggered and certified ODF 2 or more years previously. Three research questions were defined:

What percentage of households have remained ODF?

What are the primary causes of households reverting to OD?

What motivated people to remain ODF?

The study was conducted in four countries in Africa - Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda and Sierra Leone - and took a two phased approach to data collection. The first phase re-verified approximately 5000 households in 116 villages across the four countries. The second phase focussed on around 1200 households in 72 villages that were purposively selected from the first phase. A latrine timeline tool was developed to elicit (without leading) the main factors affecting household decisions to keep or abandon their latrines.

The study was finalised in December 2013.


ODF Sustainability Study

The ODF Sustainability Study was managed by Paul Tyndale-Biscoe and Matt Bond. Ross Kidd (with the assistance of Deo Binamungu and John Odolon) piloted the methodology, developed the training program for the enumerators and conducted the training in the four countries. Joanna Mott provided input from a gender perspective into the methodology and materials.


The final report of the study findings, description of methodology and analysis is available for download here..

The desk review that was conducted as part of the development of the methodology will also be made available soon.